Sunday, 21 February 2021

February 8th - Fifth Sunday after the Epiphany

The fifth Sunday after the Epiphany is of semi-double rite and its liturgical colour is green. The Gospel pericopes at Mattins and Mass are from St. Matthew and contain the parable of the cockle sown amongst the wheat.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons and psalms (143, 144, 145, 146 & 147) of Saturday were sung. The Office hymn was O lux beata Trinitas and the antiphon on the Magnificat is again Suscepit Deus. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrages of the BVM Sancta Maria succurre etc, the Apostles Petrus Apostolus etc, of the Patron and lastly for peace, Da pacem Domine were sung. At Compline the Dominical preces were sung.

At Mattins the invitatory is Adoremus Dominum and the hymn is Primo dierum omnium . In the first nocturn (Pss. 1 , 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14) the lessons are the Incipit of the Epistle to Timothy. These are the same as those found in the post-Clementine editions of the Breviary except for the addition of ..illi, in vitam aeternam in the later editions. In the second nocturn, Pss. 15, 16 & 17, the lessons are taken from and exposition on the Apostle and are ascribed to St. Ambrose (wrongly?). These are substantially longer, and different, apart from the opening words of the fourth lesson to the sermon of St. Augustine found in modern editions. In the third nocturn, Pss. 18, 19 & 20, the homily is from St. Augustine on St. Matthew's Gospel. These lessons are the same as in the post-Clementine editions. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the Sunday psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite 148-49-150) are sung. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrages of the BVM Sancta Maria succurre etc, the Apostles Gloriosi principes etc, of the Patron and lastly for peace Da pacem Domine are sung.

At Prime (Pss. 117, 118i & 118ii) Quicumque is sung as are the Dominical preces.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is A cunctis, the third collect is chosen by the Dean or Rector. The Credo is sung and the Common Preface is sung.

At Vespers the antiphons and psalms of Sunday (Pss. 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113) are sung. The Office hymn is Lucis creator. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of the following Office of St. Apollonia is sung followed by the Suffrages of the BVM Sancta Maria succurre etc, the Apostles Petrus Apostolus etc, of the Patron and lastly for peace, Da pacem Domine . At Compline the Dominical preces are sung.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 14 February 2021

February 1st - Fourth Sunday after the Epiphany


The fourth Sunday after the Epiphany is of semi-double rite and its liturgical colour, until Vespers, is green. The Gospel at Mattins and Mass is from St. Matthew and is the account of the LORD stilling the storm at sea. The semi-double feast of St. Ignatius of Antioch is transferred to Tuesday.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons and psalms (143, 144, 145, 146 & 147) of Saturday were sung. The Office hymn was O lux beata Trinitas and the antiphon on the Magnificat is again Suscepit Deus. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrages of the BVM Sancta Maria succurre etc, the Apostles Petrus Apostolus etc, of the Patron and lastly for peace, Da pacem Domine were sung. At Compline the Dominical preces were sung.

At Mattins the invitatory is Adoremus Dominum and the hymn is Primo dierum omnium . In the first nocturn (Pss. 1 , 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14) the lessons are the Incipit of the Epistle to the Philippians. The first lesson is the same as in modern editions of the Breviary. The second lesson continues with what is now text of the third lesson: Quidam quidem et propter ... suscitare vinculis meis. The third lesson begins Quid enim? Dum omni modo... and continues with the addition of vv. 19 - 24, Scio enim, quia hoc mihi ... autem in carne necessarium propter vos. In the second nocturn, Pss. 15, 16 & 17, the lessons are taken from the Book of Morals of St. Gregory. These are virtually the same as in modern editions except that the sixth lesson is shorter by the omission of the final sentence found in modern editions Dissolvi enim ... vinctum videret. In the third nocturn, Pss. 18, 19 & 20, the homily is from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel. These lessons are the same as in the post-Clementine editions. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the Sunday psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite 148-49-150) are sung. After the collect of the Sunday the Suffrages of the BVM Sancta Maria succurre etc, the Apostles Gloriosi principes etc, of the Patron and lastly for peace Da pacem Domine are sung.

At Prime (Pss. 117, 118i & 118ii) Quicumque is sung as are the Dominical preces.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is Deus, qui salutis, the third collect Ecclesiae etc. The Credo is sung and the Common Preface is sung.

At Vespers there is a colour change to white and first Vespers of the feast of the Purification are sung. The antiphons used on the feast of the Circumcision, O admirabile commercium etc., are sung, doubled, with the psalms of feasts for the Blessed Virgin (Pss. 109, 112, 121, 126 & 147). The chapter is proper to the feast and the Office hymn is Ave, maris stella. The antiphon on the Magnificat is proper to the feast Senex Puerum portabat etc. The Suffrages are omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline. At Compline the melody of Te lucis is that of the Incarnation with the Doxology Gloria tibi Domine etc.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 7 February 2021

January 25th - The Conversion of St. Paul the Apostle


The feast of the Conversion of St. Paul the Apostle is of double rite and its liturgical colour is white. The third Sunday after the Epiphany is commemorated in the Office and at Mass.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the proper antiphons, Ego plantavi etc, were sung, doubled, with the psalms from first Vespers of the Common of Apostles (Pss. 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116). The chapter, Office hymn (Doctor egregie, Paule), versicle & response, antiphon on the Magnificat and collect were all proper to the feast. After the collect of the feast commemorations were sung of St. Peter the Apostle and then of the third Sunday after the Epiphany. The Suffrages were omitted as were the Dominical preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory is proper, Laudemus Deum nostrum, In conversione Doctoris Gentium. The Office hymn is proper, Doctor egregie, Paule, as sung at Vespers. In the first nocturn the antiphons Qui operatus est etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 18, 33 & 44. The first nocturn lessons are from the Acts of the Apostles detailing the account of Paul falling from his horse and the LORD asking Saul why he persecutes the brethren. These are longer than those found in the later books: the text of the entire second lesson in the later books is contained within the first lesson in the Tridentine book. The second lesson consists of the text of the modern third lesson and, in addition, continues with Et abiit Ananias... to ...et cum accepisset cibum, confortatus es i.e. vv 17 & 18. The third lesson begins Fuit autem... and continues to ...agens in nomine Domine, i.e. vv 19 - 28, These verses are entirely absent from the later books. In the second nocturn the antiphons Tu es vas electionis etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 46. 60 & 63 The lessons are from St. Augustine's fourteenth sermon on the Saints. These are longer than those found in the post-Clementine editions. In the third nocturn the antiphons Saulus, qui et Paulus etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 74, 96 & 98. The homily is from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel. The later books substitute a homily of St. Bede. The eighth and ninth lessons are read together and the ninth lesson of the day is formed from the three lessons given for the homily of the Sunday. These are again taken from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel and are the same as in the post-Clementine editions. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons Ego plantavi etc are sung, doubled, with Pss. 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite & 148-14--150. The Office hymn is from the Common, Exsultet caelum laudibus. After the collect of the feast commemorations are sung of St. Peter the Apostle and of the Sunday. The Suffrages are omitted.

At the Hours the antiphons, Ego plantavi etc., are sung with festal psalmody in the usual order. At Prime the lectio brevis is proper to the feast, Saulus, adhuc spirans. Quicumque is not sung nor are the Dominical preces.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Mass is proper with the introit Scio cui credidi. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. Peter the Apostle, the third collect is of the Sunday. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Apostles and the last Gospel is of the Sunday.

At second Vespers the antiphons Ego plantavi etc are again sung, doubled, with the psalms from Second Vespers of Apostles (Pss. 109, 112, 115, 125 & 138). The Office hymn is, again, Doctor egregie, Paule. After the collect of the feast commemorations are sung of St. Peter, the Sunday and then of the following Office of St. Polycarp. The Suffrages are omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

Icon: From an Orthodox Church in Pennsylvania featured here.

Sunday, 31 January 2021

January 18th - St. Peter's Chair at Rome

The feast of St. Peter's Chair at Rome is of double rite and its liturgical colour is white. The second Sunday after the Epiphany is commemorated in the Office and at Mass.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons Ecce sacerdos magnus etc were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116. The Office hymn was Quodcumque vinclis. After the collect of the feast commemorations were sung of St. Paul the Apostle, St. Anthony the Abbot, of the Sunday and of St. Prisca. The Suffrages were omitted as were the Domincal preces at Compline.

At Mattins the invitatory is Tu es pastor ovium, princeps Apostolorum etc and the Office hymn is Quodcumque vinclis. In the first nocturn the antiphons Beatus vir etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 1, 2 & 3. The lessons are from the first Epistle of St. Peter. These are significantly longer than those found in the later editions of the Breviary. The text of the second lesson includes the text of the later second and third lessons. The third lesson, its text entirely absent from the later books, begins Propter quod and ends spes esset in Deo, i.e. vv 13-21. In the second nocturn the antiphons Invocantem etc are sung with psalms 4, 5 and 8. The lessons are from a sermon of St. Leo. Again, these are longer than thos found in the later editions. In the third nocturn the antiphons Domine etc are sung with psalms 14, 20 & 23. The homily is from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel as found on the feast of SS Peter and Paul. These are longer than those found in the later books for the June feast. Today the eighth and ninth lessons are read together to form an extended eighth lesson and the ninth lesson is formed from the three lessons given for the homily of the second Sunday after the Epiphany. This is from St. Jerome on St. Matthew's Gospel and the texts are the same as those found in the later books. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons Ecce sacerdos magnus etc are sung, doubled, with the Dominical psalms 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite, 148-149-150. The Office hymn is Jam bone pastor Petre. After the collect of the feast commemorations are sung of St. Paul the Apostle, of the Sunday and of St. Prisca. The Suffrages are omitted.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons from Lauds are sung in the usual order. At Prime the lectio brevis is Fungi sacerdotio etc.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of St. Paul the Apostle, the third collect of the Sunday and a fourth collect for St. Prisca. The Creed is sung, the preface is of the Apostles and the last Gospel is of the Sunday.

At second Vespers the antiphons Ecce sacerdos magnus etc, are sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 and 131. The Office hymn is Quodcumque vinclis. After the collect of the feast commemorations are sung of St. Paul the Apostle, the Sunday and of SS Maris & Others. The Suffrages are omitted as are the Dominical preces at Compline.

Image: St. Peter's Basilica.

Sunday, 24 January 2021

January 11th - Sunday within the Octave of the Epiphany


Sunday within the Octave of the Epiphany is of semi-double rite and its liturgical colour is white. The Gospel pericopes from St. Luke's Gospel describe the Finding in the Temple with the LORD debating with the learned doctors to the amazement of those who witnessed this manifestation of Him.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons Ante luciferum genitus etc were sung, not doubled, with Pss. 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113. The chapter, Fratres: Obsecro vos, was proper to the Sunday. The Office hymn was Hostis Herodes impie. After the collect of the Sunday within the Octave commemorations were sung of the Octave of the Epiphany (the antiphon on the Magnificat being proper to the fifth day within the Octave, the 10th January, Omnes de Saba and of St. Hyginus. The Suffrages were omitted. At Compline Te lucis was sung with the Doxology Gloria tibi Domine, Qui apparuisti hodie etc as are the hymns of the Hours tomorrow.

At Mattins the invitatory is Christus apparuit nobis, Venite adoremus. The hymn is Hostis Herodes impie. The antiphons and psalms are as on the second day within the Octave. In the first nocturn the Incipit of St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians is read. The lessons are longer than those found in the post-Clementine editions: The first lesson includes the modern second lesson Gratias ago Deo meo ... Christi, Domini nostri. The second lesson begins Obsecro autem, the same as the modern third lesson. The third lesson is absent from the modern editions, Gratias ago Deo...prudentiam reprobabo, i.e. vv. 14 - 19. The first responsory is Hodie, the other responsories as on the feast. In the second nocturn the lessons are from a sermon of St. Leo (again these are longer than in the post-Clementine editions of the Breviary). In the third nocturn the homily is from St. Augustine, the lessons are the same as in the modern editions. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons from the feast, Ante luciferum genitus etc are sung with the festal psalms (Pss. 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite, 148-149-150). The chapter is proper to the Sunday, as sung at Vespers yesterday, the Office hymn is O Sola magnarum urbium. After the collect of the Sunday commemorations are sung of the Octave, the antiphon on the Benedictus is Hodie caelesti etc., and of St. Hyginus.

At the Hours the psalms of Lauds are used in the usual sequence. At Prime (Pss. 53, 118i, 118ii) the versicle Qui apparuisti hodie is sung (as it is for the entire Octave) and the lectio brevis is Sicut enim in uno corpore etc. The Dominical preces are omitted being within the Octave.

The Mass In excelso throno is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Octave, the third collect is of St. Hyginus. The Creed is sung and the communicantes and Hanc igitur are of the Epiphany.

At Vespers the antiphons Ante luciferum genitus etc are again sung with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113. The Office hymn is Hostis Herodes impie. After the collect of the Sunday a commemoration of the Octave is sung, the antiphon on the Magnificat being proper to the 11th January, Admoniti Magi.The Suffrages are omitted as are the Domincal preces at Compline.

Art: Jerome Nadal

Sunday, 17 January 2021

January 4th - Octave Day of the Holy Innocents


The Octave Day of the Holy Innocents is of double rite. The liturgical colour of the Octave Day, from Mattins, is always red regardless of on what day of the week the feast falls. A peculiarity of the Calendar is that no commemoration of the Sunday is made in either the Office or Mass. The orations for the second Sunday after the Nativity of Christ are actually those found for the Vigil of the Epiphany with the ancient orations for the Vigil (the collect Corda nostra etc) being found in many sacramentaries and extant in the Dominican rite.

Vespers yesterday afternoon were second Vespers of the Octave Day of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist. The antiphons Valde honorandus etc were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 112, 115, 125 & 138. The Office hymn was Exultet caelum laudibus. Hymns of Iambic metre have the Doxology of the Incarnation. After the collect of the feast a commemoration was sung of the following Octave Day of the Holy Innocents. At Compline the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is Regem Martyrum Dominum, Venite adoremus and the Office hymn is Audit tyrannus anxius as on the feast. In the first nocturn the antiphons Secus decursus aquarum etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 1, 2 & 3. The lessons are from the fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans. The first lesson is longer than that found in the post-Clementine editions. It continues Ut quid enim Christus... until ... quis audeat mori, i.e. vv. 6-7 which in later editions form the opening sentences of the second lesson. The second lesson begins Commendat autem charitatem and continues until ...per quem nunc reconcilliationem accepimus, i.e. vv. 8-11 what is contained in the modern second and most of the third lesson. The third lesson begins Propterea sicut per unum and continues until ...Christi in plures abundavit, i.e. vv. 12-15. The responsories are from the feast. In the first nocturn the lessons are taken from the Epistle to the Romans. In the second nocturn the antiphons Dabo sanctis meis etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 14, 15 & 23. The lessons are taken from a sermon of St. Augustine on the Holy Innocents. These are the same as in the modern editions. In the third nocturn the antiphons Justi autem etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 32, 33 & 45. The homily on St. Matthew's Gospel is from St. Chrysostom. The lessons are the same as those found in the later editions. The Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons from the feast, Herodes iratus are sung, doubled, with the festal psalms (92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite, 148-149-150). The Office hymn is Salvete flores martyrum.

The antiphons from Lauds are sung in the usual sequence at the Little Hours. At Prime the festal psalms (53, 118i, 118ii) are sung. At the Hours the hymns have the Doxology in honour of the Incarnation sung Gloria tibi Domine etc.

Mass is sung after Terce. The Gloria is sung. The Alleluia and its verse are always sung on the Octave Day in place of the Tract. The preface is that of the Nativity (but not the communicantes).

At Vespers the antiphons Herodes iratus etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 115. The Office hymn is again Salvete flores martyrum. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of the following Vigil of the Epiphany.
Art: Giotto, Wikipedia

Sunday, 10 January 2021

December 28th - The Holy Innocents


The feast of the Holy Innocents is a double feast with an Octave. The liturgical colour of the day is red as the feast falls upon a Sunday this year. However, no commemoration of the Sunday within the Octave of the Nativity is made. Much of the Office comes from the Common of Several Martyrs.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons for the Nativity of the LORD, Tecum principium etc., were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 129 and 131, from the chapter of St. John, the Office hymn was Exultet caelum laudibus. After the collect of the feast, of St. John, commemorations were sung of the following feast of the Holy Innocents, of the Octave of the Nativity and the Octave of St. Stephen.

At Mattins the invitatory is Regem Martyrum Dominum, Venite adoremus and the Office hymn Audit tyrannus anxius (sung with the Doxology of the Incarnation). In the first nocturn the antiphons Secus decursus aquarum etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 1, 2 and 3. The lessons are from the Prophet Jeremiah. The first lesson begins Audite verbum Domini, Cap.1:10 and continues to the end of the fourteenth verse before the text from the lesson found in the modern books begins Haec dicit Dominus: Vox in excelso audita etc,. but ends with the fifteenth verse. The second lesson begins Haec dicit Dominus: Quiescat vox etc (v. 16), the second part of the modern first lesson, and continues with the text found in the modern second lesson with the addition of a final clause from v. 20. The third lesson is sligthly longer than that found in the post-Clementine editions having verses 24 & 25. The responsories are proper to the feast. In the second nocturn the antiphons Dabo Sanctis meis etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 14, 15 & 23. The lessons are from a sermon of St. Augustine on the Saints. The lessons are longer than those found in the post-Clementine editions. In the third nocturn the antiphons Justi autem etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 32, 33 & 45. However, the eighth antiphon, Isti sunt, is proper to the feast. The homily on St. Matthew's Gospel is from the writings of St. Jerome. Again these are longer than those found in the post-Clementine editions. The ninth responsory is omitted and in its place the Te Deum is sung.

At Lauds the antiphons Herodes iratus etc are sung, doubled, with Pss. 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite and 148-149-150. The Office hymn is Salvete, flores Martyrum (again, sung with the Doxology of the Incarnation). After the collect of the feast commemorations are sung of the Octave of the Nativity, the Octave of St. Stephen and the Octave of St. John.

At Prime and the Hours the antiphons of Lauds are sung. The hymns have their Doxology changed in honour of the Incarnation. At Prime the short lesson is of the feast, Hi empti sunt.

At Mass the Gloria is sung, the second collect is of the Octave of the Nativity, the third collect of the Octave of St. Stephen and the fourth collect of the Octave of St. John. The Alleluia and its verse given in the Missal are sung in place of the Tract. The Credo is sung and the preface and communicantes are of the Octave of the Nativity.

Vespers are of the Nativity, but from the chapter of the Holy Innocents with commemorations of the following feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, the Octave of the Nativity, the Octave of St. Stephen and the Octave of St. John.

Thursday, 7 January 2021

December 25th - The Nativity of the LORD


The feast of the Nativity of the LORD is a double feast with an Octave and its liturgical colour is white.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons Rex pacificus magnificatus est etc were sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 113. The Office hymn was Christe Redemptor omnium. At Compline, and the Hours throughout the Octave, a proper Doxology, Gloria tibi Domine, Qui natus es de Virgine, Cum patre et almo Spiritu, In sempiterna saecula, is sung at all hymns of Iambic metre until the Epiphany. At Compline the Dominical preces were omitted.

At Mattins the invitatory is Christus natus est nobis, Venite adoremus. When intoning the hymn, Christe, Redemptor omnium, the Hebdomadarius turns and bows to the altar. Mattins has three nocturns and the usual nine lessons. In the first nocturn the lessons are from Isaiah but, interestingly, are sung without a title. These are the same as in the modern editions. In the second nocturn the lessons are taken from a homily on the Nativity by St. Leo. All three lessons are longer than in the post-Clementine editions. In the third nocturn three Gospel pericopes are sung, two from St. Luke and the third from St. John. The seventh lesson does not begin at the words Quia, largiente Domino, as in the later editions, but at Quid est, quod nascituro Domino. It is longer by a couple of sentences. The eighth lesson is longer by a sentence and the ninth lesson by several sentences. After the Te Deum the collect is sung followed by Benedicamus Domino. Then the first of the three Masses for the Nativity is sung. The Gloria is sung (one theory of its origin in the Mass rite is from the song of the Angels on Christmas night to the shepherds) as is the Creed. The preface and communicantes are of the Nativity. Lauds immediately follow this Mass.

At Lauds a different set of antiphons to those used at first Vespers, Quem vidistis pastores etc., are sung, doubled, with the Dominical psalms (92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite, 148-149-150). The Office hymn is A solis ortus cardine.

Later in the morning Prime is sung. The first antiphon from Lauds, Quem vidistis pastores, is sung with the festal psalms (53, 118i & 118ii). In the short responsory the versicle Qui natus es de Maria Virgine is sung. Prime is followed by the second Mass, the Missa in aurora, that has a second collect to commemorate St. Anastasia. The Gloria and Creed are sung, the preface and communicantes are of the Nativity.

After Terce the third Mass is sung. This Mass too has the Gloria and Creed along with the preface and communicantes of the Nativity. As the Gospel pericope for this Mass is In principio the Gospel of the Epiphany, Cum natus esset Jesus, is read as a proper last Gospel.

Second Vespers has yet a third set of proper antiphons for the feast, Tecum principium etc., that are sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 129 and 131. These antiphons and psalms will be used through the Octave. After the collect of the feast a commemoration is sung of the following feast of St. Stephen.

A very blessed and Holy, Julian Kalendar, Christmass to all.

Sunday, 3 January 2021

December 21st - Fourth Sunday of Advent


The Fourth Sunday of Advent is of semi-double rite. The liturgical colour, until Vespers, is violet. The feast of St. Thomas the Apostle is transferred to tomorrow.

At Vespers yesterday afternoon the antiphons and Psalms of Saturday (Pss. 143, 144, 145, 146 & 147) were sung. The Office hymn was Conditor alme siderum. The Great 'O' Antiphon O clavis David was sung entire both before and after the Magnificat. At Compline the Dominical preces were sung.

At Mattins the invitatory is Prope est jam Dominus and the Office hymn is Verbum supernum. In the first nocturn the antiphons Veniet ecce Rex etc are sung with Pss. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14. The lessons in the first nocturn are taken from the prophet Isaiah. The first and second lessons are the same as those found in the post-Clementine editions of the Breviary. The third lesson is slightly longer continuing Viderunt insulae ... eum clavis, ut non moveretur, (i.e. the addition of Cap. 41 vv. 5 -7). In the second nocturn the antiphons Gaude et laetare etc are sung with Pss. 15, 16 and 17. The lessons are taken from a sermon of St. Leo on fasting in the tenth month. These lesson are substantially longer than in the modern editions of the Breviary. The sixth lesson text is completely absent from the modern editions. In the third nocturn the antiphons Gabriel Angelus etc are sung with Pss. 18, 19 and 20. The homily is from St. Gregory's writing on St. Luke's Gospel. These are the same as those found in the modern editions. A ninth responsory, Intuemini, is sung as the Te Deum omitted in the Office of Advent.

At Lauds the antiphons Canite tuba in Sion etc are sung with psalms 92, 99, 62-66, Benedicite and 148-149-150. The hymn is Vox clara ecce intonat. The antiphon on the Benedictus is proper to the 21st December, Nolite timere etc. The Suffrages are omitted in Advent.

At Prime the first antiphon from Lauds, Canite tuba in Sion, is sung with the usual Dominical psalms (53, 117, 118i, 118ii) and Quicumque. In the short responsory the versicle is Qui venturus es in mundum. The Dominical preces are sung. At the other Hours the other antiphons of Lauds are sung in the usual order.

Mass is sung after Terce. The ministers wear violet folded chasubles. The introit is the delightful Rorate, caeli. The Gloria in not sung, the second collect is of the Blessed Virgin in Advent, Deus, qui de beate, the third collect Ecclesiae. The Creed is sung and the common preface is sung. As the Gloria was not sung, the dismissal is Benedicamus Domino sung by the deacon facing the altar.

At Vespers the liturgical colour changes to red and first Vespers of St. Thomas the Apostle are sung. The antiphons Hoc est praeceptum meum etc are sung, doubled, with psalms 109, 110, 111, 112 & 116. The Office hymn is Exsultet caelum laudibus. The antiphon on the Magnificat is proper to the feast, Quia vidisti me etc. After the collect of the feast the Sunday is commemorated with the Great 'O' Antiphon appointed for the 21st December, O Oriens. At Compline the Dominical preces are omitted.

Art: Jerome Nadal